Teachers’ experiences of promoting young students’ language development in inclusive settings
Abstract views: 548 / PDF downloads: 348
Keywords:Inclusive education, Preschool class, Language development, Teachers, Thematic analysis
Early education is essential in promoting language development for all young students. Teachers will meet 6-year-olds with various language skills in the preschool class in Sweden. They are expected to engage and involve all students in language education to promote each student’s language development. The study aimed to explore teachers’ experiences promoting language development among young students in inclusive settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 teachers working with young students in the preschool class. All interviews were transcribed and analyzed with thematic analysis. Three themes were identified, representing the teachers’ knowledge of language development, the pedagogical approach to promoting language development, and students with special needs in oral and written language. The results are related to Shulman's (1986, 1987) framework on teachers’ competence in integrating content and pedagogical knowledge for successful teaching. Teachers in preschool classes might need education and in-service training to master young students' diverse language abilities and needs.
Ainscow, M. (2020) Promoting inclusion and equity in education: Lessons from international experiences. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 6(1), 7-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20020317.2020.1729587
Alatalo, T. (2011). Skicklig läs- och skrivundervisnign i åk 1-3: Om lärares möjligheter och hinder Skilled reading and writing teaching in grades 1-3: About teachers' opportunities and obstacles (Göteborg studies in Educational Sciences, No 311). Göteborg, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Axelsson, A., Lundqvist, J., & Sandberg, G. (2020). Influential factors on children's reading and writing development: The perspective of parents in a Swedish context. Early Child Development and Care, 190(16), 2520-2532. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2019.1590348
Barbier, K., Struyf, E., Verschueren, K., & Donche, V. (2022). Fostering cognitive and affective-motivational learning outcomes for high-ability students in mixed-ability elementary classrooms: A systematic review. European Journal of Psychology of Education, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-022-00606-z
Bowyer, C. C., Snowling, M. J., Duff, F. J., Fieldsend, E., Carroll, J. M., Miles, J., Götz, K., & Hulme, C. (2008). Improving early language and literacy skills: Differential effects of an oral language versus a phonology with reading intervention. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 49(4), 422–432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01849.x
Braun, V. & Clarke, C. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research. A practical guide for beginners. Sage.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2022). Conceptual and design thinking for thematic analysis. Qualitative Psychology, 9(1), 3-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/qup0000196
Brown, C. (2018). We need to make kindergarten engaging again. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/thefundamentals/201811/we-need-make-kindergarten-engaging-again
Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5–51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100618772271
Costantino-Lane, T. (2021). “Mr. Toad’s Wild Ride”: Teachers’ perceptions of reading instruction in kindergarten. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49(2), 235–245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-020-01065-1
de Beer, J., Engels, J., Heerkens, Y., & van der Klink, K. (2014). Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: A systematic review. BMC Publick Health, 14, 77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-77
Dockrell, J. E., Connelly, V., & Arfè, B. (2019). Struggling writers in elementary school: Capturing drivers of performance. Learning and Instruction, 60, 75–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.11.009
Dockrell, J. E., Howell, P., Leung, D., & Fugard, A. J. B. (2017). Children with speech language and communication needs in England: Challenges for practice. Frontiers in Education, 2, Article 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2017.00035
Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., Pagani, L. S., Feinstein, L., Engel, M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Sexton, H., Duckworth, K., & Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2068
Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Willows, D. M., Schuster, B. V., Yaghoub‐Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel's meta‐analysis. Reading research quarterly, 36(3), 250-287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.36.3.2
Evens, M., Elen, J., Larmuseau, C., & Depaepe, F. (2018). Promoting the development of teacher professional knowledge: Integrating content and pedagogy in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 75, 244–258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.07.001
Fricke, S., Bowyer-Crane, C., Haley, A. J., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2013). Efficacy of language intervention in the early years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(3), 280–290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12010
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., Christian, D. (2005). English language learners in U.S. schools: An overview of research findings. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363–385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327671espr1004_2
Gillon, G.T. (2000). The efficacy of phonological awareness intervention for children with spoken language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 31(2), 126-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461.3102.126
Gillon, G., McNeill, B., Denston, A., Scott, A., & Macfarlane, A. (2020). Evidence-based class literacy instruction for children with speech and language difficulties. Topics in Language Disorders, 40(4), 357-374. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/TLD.0000000000000233
Gough, P. B. (1996). How children learn to read and why they fail. Annals of Dyslexia, 46(1), 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02648168
Hammond, L. (2015). Early childhood educators’ perceived and actual metalinguistic knowledge, beliefs, and enacted practice about teaching early reading. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 20(2) 113-128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19404158.2015.1023208
Hofslundsengen, H., Magnusson, M., Svensson, A.K., Jusslin, S., Mellgren, E., Hagtvet, B.E., & Heilä-Ylikallio, R. (2020). The literacy environment of preschool classrooms in three Nordic countries: Challenges in a multilingual and digital society. Early Child Development and Care, 190(3), 414-427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2018.1477773
Hulme, C., & Snowling, M.J. (2016). Reading disorder and dyslexia. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 28(6), 731-735. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000411
Kaminski, R., Powell-Smith, K., Hommel, A., McMahon, R., & Aguayo, K. (2014). Development of a tier 3 curriculum to teach early literacy skills. Journal of Early Intervention, 36(4), 313-332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815115581210
Kirby, M.S., Spencer, T.D., & Chen, Y.J.I. (2021). Oral narrative instruction improves kindergarten. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 37(6), 574-591. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2021.1879696
Language and Reading Research Consortium (2017). Oral language and listening comprehension: Same or different constructs? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(5), 1273-1284. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-16-0039
Lonigan, C. J., & Shanahan, T. (2008). Developing early literacy: Report of the national early literacy panel. A scientific synthesis of early literacy development and implications for intervention. Executive summary. National Institute for Literacy.
Lundberg, I., Larsman, P., & Strid, A. (2012). Development of phonological awareness during the preschool year: The influence of gender and socio-economic status. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25(2), 305–320. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-010-9269-4
Massonnié, J., Llaurado, A., Sumner, E., & Dockrell, J.E. (2022). Oral language at school entry: Dimensionality of speaking and listening skills. Oxford Review of Education, 48(6), 743-766. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2021.2013189
Melby-Lervåg, M., Lyster, S.-A. H., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 322–352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026744
Munro, N., Lee, K., & Baker, E. (2008). Building vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills in children with specific language impairment through hybrid language intervention: A feasibility study. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 43(6), 662-682. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820701806308
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2005). Pathways to reading: The role of oral language in the transition to reading. Developmental Psychology, 41(2), 428–442. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.118
Norbury, C. F., Gooch, D., Wray, C., Baird, G., Charman, T., Simonoff, E., Vamvakas, G., & Pickles, A. (2016). The impact of nonverbal ability on prevalence and clinical presentation of language disorder: Evidence from a population study. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 57(11), 1247–1257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12573
Norling, M. (2019). En studie om hur förskollärare och lärare resonerar om undervisningens innehåll i relation till barns språk-, läs- och skrivutveckling i förskola och förskoleklass A study of how preschool teachers and teachers reason about the content of teaching in relation to children's language, reading and writing development in preschool and preschool class. Nordisk barnehageforskning, 18(4), 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7577/nbf.2958
Piasta, S. B., Park, S., Farley, K. S., Justice, L. M., & O'Connell, A. A. (2020). Early childhood educators' knowledge about language and literacy: Associations with practice and children's learning. Dyslexia, 26(2), 137–152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1612
Pickard, A. (2021). Accountability in adult basic education: The marginalization of adults with difficulty reading. Journal of Literacy Research, 53(1), 53–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1086296X20986910
Podolsky, A., Kini, T., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of US research. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 4(4), 286-308. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JPCC-12-2018-0032
Sandberg, G., Hellblom-Thibblin, T., & Garpelin, A. (2015). Teacher’s perspective on how to promote children’s learning in reading and writing. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 30(4), 505-517. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2015.1046738
Saracho, O.N. (2017). Literacy and language: New developments in research, theory, and practice. Early Child Development and Care, 187(3-4), 299-304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2017.1282235
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004
Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundation of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.57.1.j463w79r56455411
Suggate, S., Schaughency, E., McAnally, H., & Reese, E. (2018). From infancy to adolescence: The longitudinal links between vocabulary, early literacy skills, oral narrative, and reading comprehension. Cognitive Development, 47, 82–95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2018.04.005
Swedish Education Act (2010:800). https://www.riksdagen.se/sv/dokument-lagar/dokument/svenskforfattningssamling/skollag-2010800_sfs-2010-800
Swedish National Agency for Education. (2014). Arbete med extra anpassningar, särskilt stöd och åtgärdsprogram General guidelines for working with additional adjustments, special support and action programmes. https://www.skolverket.se/getFile?file=3299
Swedish National Agency for Education. (2015). Support activities in school – What do I need to know as a parent? https://www.skolverket.se/getFile?file=3477
Swedish National Agency for Education. (2018). Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and school-age educare. https://www.skolverket.se/getFile?file=3984
Swedish National Agency for Education. (2019). Skolverkets föreskrifter om obligatoriska nationella kartläggningsmaterial i språklig medvetenhet och i matematiskt tänkande i förskoleklass, SKOLFS 2019:16 The Swedish National Agency for Education's regulations on compulsory national evaluation materials in language awareness and in mathematical thinking in preschool classes. https://skolfs-service.skolverket.se/api/v1/download/grundforfattning/2019:16
Swedish National Agency for Education. (2021). Elever i förskoleklassen läsåret 2020/21 Students in preschool class academic year 2020/21. https://www.skolverket.se/download/18.5a061df817791f8257b17fd/1616773274509/pdf7921.pdf
Swedish Schools Inspectorate. (2021). Skolenkäten Schoool questionnaire. https://www.skolinspektionen.se/beslut-rapporter-statistik/statistik/statistik-fran-skolenkaten/resultat-skolenkaten-2021
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. [UNESCO]. (1994, June 7-10). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for action on special needs education: Adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education; Access and Quality. Salamanca, Spain.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]. (2018, October 17-18). Functional literacy and Numeracy: Definitions and Options for Measurement of SDG 4.6. GAML Fifth Meeting, Hamburg, Germany.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]. (2022). Teacher content knowledge. https://policytoolbox.iiep.unesco.org/policy-option/teacher-content-knowledge/#policies-for-children-with-disabilities
World Literacy Foundation. (2012). The economic and social cost of illiteracy: A snapshot of illiteracy in a global context. http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/321997
Zucker, T., Solari, E., Landry, S., & Swank, P. (2013). Effects of a brief tiered language intervention for prekindergartners at risk. Early Education and Development, 24(3), 366-392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2012.664763
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Attribution: You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial: You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives: If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
Author(s) must confirm that the Journal of Childhood, Education & Society retains all the copyrights unconditionally and indefinitely to publish articles.