‘When the body speaks back’: Socialization of body-mind dualism in body memories of Cold War childhoods


Abstract views: 662 / PDF downloads: 266

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37291/2717638X.202342278

Keywords:

Cold War memories, Childhood, Collective biography, Mind and body dualism, Embodied mind, Mindful body

Abstract

Studies focusing on East Central Europe have generously explored collective memory (lieux de mémoire, monuments, ceremonies) and nostalgia for a past regime, but rarely have they examined memories as carried in child bodies. In this paper, we analyze selected Cold War childhood memories to explore events in which children’s bodies seemingly act out of control. As a part of socialization, children are taught to consciously control their bodies to fit in the societies they have been born to. With learning to control the body, children also learn that bodies are separate from their minds and that their minds can govern and regiment their body. However, bodies also slip up, avert, or simply remain unaffected by these attempts, in a way ‘speaking back’ to regulating forces, thus troubling the modernist assumption of the separation between the mind and body. The aim of the paper is to show the complexities and limits of socialist or any modern(ist) forms of socialization in which the concerted efforts of the mind are mobilized to govern the body. Moreover, the discussion of body memory and the highlighted mechanisms of how socialization efforts create bodily memories adds to our understanding of the effects of pedagogical intentions in education.

References

Ariès, P. (1996). Centuries of childhood. Pimlico.

Assmann, J., & Czaplicka, J. (1995). Collective memory and cultural identity. New German critique, 65, 125-133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/488538

Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind. University of Chicago Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226924601.001.0001

Berger, P.L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge (1st ed.). Doubleday & company.

Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. The Polity Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781503621749

Brown, M.R. (2003). Images of childhood. In Fass, P. F. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of children and childhood in history and society (vol 2., pp. 449-463). Macmillan Reference.

Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J., (Eds.) (1992). Ethnography and the historical imagination. Westview Press.

Csordas, T. J. (2002). Body/meaning/healing. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-08286-2

Csordas, T. J. (2016). Imaginal performance and memory in ritual healing. In C. Laderman, and M. Roseman (Eds), The performance of healing (pp. 91-114.). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315538860-4

Davies, B., & Gannon, S. (2009). Pedagogical encounters. Peter Lang.

Davies, B., & Gannon, S. (Eds). (2006). Doing collective biography. Open University Press.

Davies, B., Dormer, S., Gannon, S., Laws, C., Taguchi, H. L., McCann, H., & Rocco, S. (2006). Becoming schoolgirls: The ambivalent project of subjectification. In B. Davies, and S. Gannon (Eds.), Doing collective biography (pp.16–34). Open University Press,

deMause, L. (1995). The history of childhood. Jason Aronson.

Douglas, M. (2020). The two bodies. In M. Fraser,and M. Greco (Eds.), The body: A reader (pp. 78-81). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003060338-10

Dussel, I. (2005). When appearances are not deceptive. A comparative history of school uniforms in Argentina and the United States. Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 41(1-2), 179–195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0030923042000335538

Evans, J., Davies, B., & Rich., E. (2009). The body made flesh: Embodied learning and the corporeal device. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30(4), 391-406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01425690902954588

Fass, P.F. (Ed). (2013). The Routledge history of childhood in the Western World. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203075715

Fox, N.J. (2012). The body. Polity.

Fuchs, T. (2012). Body memory and the unconscious. In D. Lohmar and J. Brudzínska (Ed.) Founding psychoanalysis phenomenologically: Phenomenological theory of subjectivity and the psychoanalytic experience (pp. 69-82). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1848-7_4

Fürst, J. (2010). Stalin’s last generation. Soviet post-war youth and the emergence of mature socialism. Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575060.001.0001

Gannon, S. & Davies, B. (2021). Doing collective biography through theoretical, material, affective, embodied assemblages. In R. Hamm (Ed.), Reader: Collective Memory-Work E-book (pp. 540-569). Beltra Books.

Gannon, S., Walsh, S., Byers, M., & Rajiva, S.M. (2014). Deterritorializing collective biography. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 27(2), 181–195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2012.737044

Georgescu, D. (2010). Raising socialist citizens: Cultural modernity and social performativity in late socialist Romania. New Europe College Yearbook, 10, 141-164.

Georgescu, D. (2015). "Ceauşescu's children”:The making and unmaking of Romania's last socialist generation (1965-2010). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Gunderson, E. J. (1975). A note on the" so-called" mind-body problem. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 32(3), 317-320.

Haug, F., Andresen, S., Bünz-Elfferding, A., Hauser, K., Lang, U., Laudan, M., Lüdemann, M., Meir, U., Nemitz, B., Niehoff, E., Prinz, R., Räthzel, N., Scheu, M., & Thomas, C. (1999). Female sexualization: A collective work of memory. Verso.

Henschel, F. (2020). The embodiment of deviance: The biopolitics of the “difficult child” in Socialist Czechoslovakia. East European Politics and Societies, 34(4), 837-857. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325419890126

Hentz, P. (2002). The body remembers: Grieving and a circle of time. Qualitative Health Research, 12(2), 161-172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/104973202129119810

Hirsch, M. (2002). Marked by memory: Feminist reflections on trauma and transmission. In N. K. Miller, and J. Tougaw (Eds.), Extremities. trauma, testimony, and community Urbana and Chicago (pp. 71-91). University of Illinois Press.

Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85(3), 551-575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/227049

Hörschelmann, K., & Colls, R. (Eds.) (2009). Contested bodies of childhood and youth. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230274747

Horvat, B. (1973). Notes on distribution according to needs in socialism. Economic Analysis, 7(3-4), 228-231.

Humphries, S. (1995). Hooligans or rebels: Oral history of working class childhood and youth, 1889-1939. Blackwell publishers.

Jackson, A.Y., & Mazzei, L. (2011). Thinking with theory in qualitative research: Viewing data across multiple perspectives. Routledge.

James, A., & Prout, A. (Eds.) (2005). Constructing and reconstructing childhood: Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood (2nd ed.). Falmer Press.

Kašparová, I. (2018). Growing up as Vicar’s daughter in communist Czechoslovakia: Politics, religion, and childhood agency examined. In Childhood and schooling in (post) socialist societies (pp. 87-105). Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62791-5_5

Kleinman, A., & Kleinman, J. (1994). How bodies remember: Social memory and bodily experience of criticism, resistance, and delegitimation following China's cultural revolution. New literary history, 25(3), 707-723. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/469474

Klumbytè, N., & Sharafutdinova, G. (Eds.) (2013). Soviet society in the era of late socialism, 1964-1985. Lexington Books.

Koch, S. C., Fuchs, T., & Summa, M. (2014). Body memory and kinesthetic body feedback: The impact of light versus strong movement qualities on affect and cognition. Memory Studies, 7(3), 272–284. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1750698014530618

Koch, S. C., Fuchs, T., Summa, M., & Müller, C. (2012). Body memory, metaphor and movement. John Benjamins Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/aicr.84

Krylova, A. (2017). Imagining socialism in the Soviet century. Social History, 42(3), 315-341. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03071022.2017.1327640

Kucherenko, O. (2016). Soviet street children and the Second World War: Welfare and social control under Stain. Bloomsbury Academic. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781474296199

Lancy, D.F. (2008). The anthropology of childhood: Cherubs, chattel, changelings. Cambridge University Press.

Leder, D. (1990). The absent body. Chicago University Press.

Lind, R.E. (2001). Historical origins of the modern mind/body split. The Journal of Mind and Behaviour, 22(1), 23-40.

Lock, M., & Farquhar, J. (Eds.) (2007). Beyond the body proper: Reading the anthropology of material life (body, commodity, text). Duke University Press.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962/2013). Phenomenology of perception. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203720714

Millei, Z. (2011). Governing through early childhood curriculum," the child," and" community" ideologies of socialist Hungary and Neoliberal Australia. European Education, 43(1), 33-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/EUE1056-4934430103

Millei, Z., & Imre, R. (Eds.) (2015). Childhood and nation: Interdisciplinary engagements (Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood series edited by Mimi Bloch and Elizabeth Blue Swadener). Palgrave MacMillan.

Millei, Z., Piattoeva, N., Silova, I., & Aydarova, E. (2018). Hair bows and uniforms: Entangled politics in children’s everyday lives. In I. Silova, Z. Millei, & N. Piattoeva (Eds.), Childhood and schooling in (post) socialist societies: Memories of everyday life. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62791-5_8

Oates-Indruchová, L. (2003). The ideology of the genderless sporting body: Reflections on the Czech state-socialist concept of physical culture. In Indeterminate Bodies, ed. by Naomi Segal, Roger Cook and Lib Taylor. Palgrave Macmillan. Pp. 48-66.

Poole, R. (2008). Memory, history and the claims of the past. Memory Studies, 1(2), 149–166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1750698007088383

Postman, N. (1994). The disappearance of childhood. Vintage Books.

Pylvänäinen, P. (2012). Body memory as a part of the body image. Body Memory, Metaphor and Movement. Advances in Consciousness Research, 84, 289-306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/aicr.84.22pyl

Rehak, J.K. (2014). Moral childhood: The legacy of socialism and childhood memories in Czechoslovakia. Romanian Journal of Population Studies, 8(2), 89-98.

Roediger III, H.L., & Wertsch, J.V. (2008). Creating a new discipline of memory studies. Memory studies, 1(1), 9-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1750698007083884

Roubal, P. (2003). Politics of gymnastics: mass gymnastic displays under communism in central and eastern europe. Body & Society, 9(2), 1-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X030092001

Roubal, P. (2020). Spartakiads: The politics of physical culture in communist Czechoslovakia. Karolinum.

Sansi, R. (2017). The Chimera principle: An anthropology of memory and imagination, by Carlo Severi. Anthropological Forum: A Journal of Social Anthropology and Comparative Sociology, 27(3) 299-301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00664677.2017.1363845

Scheper-Hughes, N. (1992). Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in Brazil. University of California Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520911567

Schumann, D. (2010). Raising citizens in the "Century of the Child". The United States and German Central Europe in Comparative Perspective. Berghahn Books.

Shaw, R. (2020). Memories of the slave trade: Ritual and the historical imagination in Sierra Leone. University of Chicago Press.

Silova, I., Piattoeva, N., & Millei, Z. (Eds.) (2018). Childhood and schooling in (post)socialist societies: Memories of everyday life. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62791-5

Simonsen, K., & Koefoed, L. (2020). Geographies of embodiment: Critical phenomenology and the world of strangers. Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781529702125

Simpkins, S.A. (2016). Body memory in those who experienced loss in childhood and adolescence: Implications for dance/movement therapy [Doctoral dissertation]. Drexel University.

Skultans, V. (2008). Empathy and healing: Essays in medical and narrative anthropology. Berghahn Books.

Sorin, R., & Galloway, G., (2006). Constructs of childhood: Constructs of self. Children Australia, 31(2), 12-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1035077200011081

Stearns, P.N. (2011). Childhood in world history (2nd ed). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203839751

Taylor, K. (2006). Let’s twist again: Youth and leisure in socialist Bulgaria. LIT Verlag Vienna and Berlin.

Tesar, M. (2018). Power, ideology and children: Socialist childhoods in Czechoslovakia. Dialogic Pedagogy: An International Online Journal, 6, 49-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/dpj.2018.244

Teszenyi, E., Varga Nagy, A., & Pálfi, S. (2022). Re-imagining socialist childhoods: Changing narratives of spatial and temporal (dis)orientations. Journal of Childhood, Education & Society, 3(3) 212-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37291/2717638X.202233252

Turner, B. (1992). Regulating bodies. Routledge.

Turner, E. (1992). Experiencing ritual: A new interpretation of African healing. University of Pennsylvania Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812203981

Turner, T. (1995). Social body and embodied subject: Bodiliness, subjectivity, and sociality among the Kayapo. Cultural Anthropology, 10(2), 143-170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1995.10.2.02a00010

Wagner, P. (2008). Modernity as experience and interpretation: A new sociology of modernity. Polity Press.

Westphal, J. (2016). The mind-body problem. The MIT Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/10776.001.0001

Young, K. (2002) The memory of the flesh: The family body in somatic psychology. Body & Society, 8(3), 25-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X02008003002

Downloads

Published

2023-07-14

How to Cite

Kašparová, I., Scutaru, B., & Millei, Z. (2023). ‘When the body speaks back’: Socialization of body-mind dualism in body memories of Cold War childhoods. Journal of Childhood, Education & Society, 4(2), 142–155. https://doi.org/10.37291/2717638X.202342278

Funding data