Contact with nature and executive functions: A pilot study with Spanish preschoolers

Abstract views: 627 / PDF downloads: 326




Executive functions, Self-regulation, Working memory, Nature contact, Preschoolers


In the last decades, studies have suggested that contact with nature might impact positively on children’s Executive Functions (EF), although results are not consistent across studies. The present research aimed to explore a set of contextual factors (family socioeconomic status, residential area, and contact with nature) and their relations with preschoolers’ EF. Specifically, the research proposed to examine whether there were differences in preschoolers’ EF between rural/urban environments, to analyze the relation between exposure to natural surroundings and EF, and the potential interaction between contact with nature and family socioeconomic status in explaining children’s EF. A total of 56 preschoolers (30 boys, 26 girls) aged 4-6 years (M = 4.86, SD = .82) participated in the study. Families reported children’s contact with nature and EF through validated questionnaires. Results suggested that rural/urban environments were not related to children’s EF, but preschoolers who had more contact with nature exhibited higher Working memory skills. Moreover, mothers’ lower education was related to more difficulties in preschoolers’ Working memory when they have less contact with nature, but spending more time in natural surroundings seems to buffer that negative relation between lower maternal education and children’s EF. These preliminary findings highlight the relevance of the exposure and contact with nature for early childhood years.


Ahmed, S., Tang, S., Waters, N., & Davis-Kean, P. (2018). Executive function and academic achievement: longitudinal relations from early childhood to adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(3), 446–458. DOI:

Alloway, T. P., & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106(1), 20–29. DOI:

Alloway, T. P., & Copello, E. (2013). Working memory: the what, the why, and the how. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 30(2), 105-118. DOI:

American Psychological Association. (2015). APA Dictionary of Psychology (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Amicone, G., Petruccelli, I., De Dominicis, S., Gherardini, A., Costantino, V., Perucchini, P., & Bonaiuto, M. (2018). Green breaks: The restorative effect of the school environment’s green areas on children’s cognitive performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1579. DOI:

Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of Executive Function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71–82. DOI:

Anderson, P. J., & Reidy, N. (2012). Assessing executive function in preschoolers. Neuropsychology Review, 22(4), 345–360. DOI:

Andrade, S. A., Santos, D. N., Bastos, A. C., Pedromônico, M. R. M., Almeida-Filho, N. de, & Barreto, M. L. (2005). Ambiente familiar e desenvolvimento cognitivo infantil: Uma abordagem epidemiológica [Family environment and child’s cognitive development: an epidemiological approach]. Revista de Saúde Pública, 39(4), 606–611. DOI:

Aragonese Institute of Statistics. (2019). Portal de Aragon.

Ardila, A., Rosselli, M., Matute, E., & Guajardo, S. (2005). The influence of the parents’ educational level on the development of executive functions. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(1), 539–560. DOI:

Barr, A., Eggleston, J., & Smith, A. A. (2022). Investing in infants: The lasting effects of cash transfers to new families. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 137(4), 2539–2583. DOI:

Bausela, E., & Luque, T. (2006). Evaluación conductual de la función ejecutiva—versión infantil. TEA Ediciones.

Becker, D. R., Miao, A., Duncan, R., & McClelland, M. M. (2014). Behavioral self-regulation and executive function both predict visuomotor skills and early academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 411–424. DOI:

Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641–1660. DOI:

Blair, C. (2016). Executive function and early childhood education. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 102–107. DOI:

Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647–663. DOI:

Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C.-S., Suwalsky, J. T., & Haynes, O. M. (2003). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development: The Hollingshead Four-Factor Index of Social Status and The Socioeconomic Index of Occupations. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Boussicault, G., Nguyen the Tich, S., Branger, B., Guimard, P., Florin, A., Rozé, J. C., & Flamant, C. (2013). The Global School Adaptation Score: a new neurodevelopmental assessment tool for very preterm children at five years of age. The Journal of Pediatrics, 163(2), 460–464. DOI:

Brown, T. E., & Landgraf, J. M. (2010). Improvements in executive function correlate with enhanced performance and functioning and health-related quality of life: Evidence from 2 large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in ADHD. Postgraduate Medicine, 122(5), 42–51. DOI:

Bull, R., & Scerif, G. (2001). Executive functioning as a predictor of children’s mathematics ability: Inhibition, Switching, and Working Memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19(3), 273–293. DOI:

Carlson, S. M. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 595–616. DOI:

Carlson, S. M., Mandell, D. J., & Williams, L. (2004). Executive Function and Theory of Mind: stability and prediction from ages 2 to 3. Developmental Psychology, 40(6), 1105–1122. DOI:

Carlson, S. M., Zelazo, P. D., & Faja, S. (2013). Executive function. In The Oxford handbook of developmental psychology (Vol 1): Body and mind (pp. 706–743). Oxford University Press. DOI:

Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., & Thomas, K. M. (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology, 54(1), 241–257. DOI:

Chevalier, N., & Blaye, A. (2009). Setting goals to switch between tasks: Effect of cue transparency on children’s cognitive flexibility. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 782–797. DOI:

Ciria, L. F., Román-Caballero, R., Vadillo, M. A., Holgado, D., Luque-Casado, A., Perakakis, P., & Sanabria, D. (2023). An umbrella review of randomized control trials on the effects of physical exercise on cognition. Nature Human Behaviour, 1–14. DOI:

Clark, C. A. C., Pritchard, V. E., & Woodward, L. J. (2010). Preschool executive functioning abilities predict early mathematics achievement. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1176–1191. DOI:

Clark, C., Prior, M., & Kinsella, G. (2002). The relationship between executive function abilities, adaptive behaviour, and academic achievement in children with externalising behaviour problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(6), 785–796. DOI:

Collado, S., Corraliza, J. A., Staats, H., & Ruiz, M. (2015). Effect of frequency and mode of contact with nature on children’s self-reported ecological behaviors. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 41, 65–73. DOI:

Conway, A., & Stifter, C. A. (2012). Longitudinal Antecedents of Executive Function in preschoolers. Child Development, 83(3), 1022–1036. DOI:

Cooper, K., & Stewart, K. (2021). Does household income affect children’s outcomes? A systematic review of the evidence. Child Indicators Research, 14(3), 981–1005. DOI:

Cortés Pascual, A., Moyano Muñoz, N., & Quílez Robres, A. (2019). The relationship between executive functions and academic performance in primary education: review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1582. DOI:

Cowan, N., Fristoe, N. M., Elliott, E. M., Brunner, R. P., & Saults, J. S. (2006). Scope of attention, control of attention, and intelligence in children and adults. Memory & Cognition, 34(8), 1754–1768. DOI:

Crisci, G., Caviola, S., Cardillo, R., & Mammarella, I. C. (2021). Executive Functions in neurodevelopmental disorders: comorbidity overlaps between attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and specific learning disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15. DOI:

Dadvand, P., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Esnaola, M., Forns, J., Basagaña, X., Alvarez-Pedrerol, M., Rivas, I., López-Vicente, M., De Castro Pascual, M., Su, J., Jerrett, M., Querol, X., & Sunyer, J. (2015). Green spaces and cognitive development in primary schoolchildren. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(26), 7937–7942. DOI:

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive Functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168. DOI:

Diamond, A. (2016). Why improving and assessing executive functions early in life is critical. In J. A. Griffin, P. McCardle, & L. S. Freund (Eds.), Executive function in preschool-age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment, and translational research (pp. 11–43). American Psychological Association. DOI:

Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. (2012). Socioeconomic status and cognitive functioning: Moving from correlation to causation. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 3(3), 377–386. DOI:

Duron-Ramos, M. F., Collado, S., García-Vázquez, F. I., & Bello-Echeverria, M. (2020). The role of urban/rural environments on Mexican children’s connection to nature and pro-environmental behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 514. DOI:

Fedewa, A. L., & Ahn, S. (2011). The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children’s achievement and cognitive outcomes: A meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 521–535. DOI:

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. SAGE.

Freitas, L. L., Cardoso, T. S. G., Argollo, N., & Mello, C. B. (2022). Socioeconomic status, urbanization and executive functions development: Differences between urban and rural children. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 38. DOI:

Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31–60. DOI:

Gathercole, S. E., Pickering, S. J., Knight, C., & Stegmann, Z. (2004). Working memory skills and educational attainment: Evidence from national curriculum assessments at 7 and 14 years of age. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18(1), 1–16. DOI:

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2016). IBM SPSS statistics 23 step by step (14th ed.). Routledge. DOI:

Gifford, R., & Nilsson, A. (2014). Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: A review. International Journal of Psychology, 49(3), 141–157. DOI:

Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function: BRIEF. Psychological Assessment Resources Odessa. DOI:

González, L., Cortés-Sancho, R., Murcia, M., Ballester, F., Rebagliato, M., & Rodríguez-Bernal, C. L. (2020). El rol de la clase social, la educación y el desempleo parentales en el desarrollo cognitivo infantil [The role of parental social class, education and unemployment on child cognitive development]. Gaceta Sanitaria, 34(1), 51–60. DOI:

Gotch, C., & Hall, T. (2004). Understanding nature‐related behaviors among children through a theory of reasoned action approach. Environmental Education Research, 10(2), 157–177. DOI:

Gouin, M., Flamant, C., Gascoin, G., Rouger, V., Florin, A., Guimard, P., Rozé, J.-C., & Hanf, M. (2015). The association of urbanicity with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children. PLOS ONE, 10(7), e0131749. DOI:

Graham, S., & Provost, L. (2012). Mathematics achievement gaps between suburban students and their rural and urban peers increase over time. Issue Brief N 52. Carsey Institute. DOI:

Greenwood, P., Dudley, J., Hutton, J., DiFrancesco, M., Farah, R., & Horowitz-Kraus, T. (2021). Higher maternal education is related to negative functional connectivity between attention system networks and reading-related regions in children with reading difficulties compared to typical readers. Brain Research, 1766, 147532. DOI:

Hackman, D. A., Gallop, R., Evans, G. W., & Farah, M. J. (2015). Socioeconomic status and executive function: Developmental trajectories and mediation. Developmental Science, 18(5), 686–702. DOI:

Hermida, M. J., Shalom, D. E., Segretin, M. S., Goldin, A. P., Abril, M. C., Lipina, S. J., & Sigman, M. (2019). Risks for child cognitive development in rural contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2697. DOI:

Hinds, J., & Sparks, P. (2008). Engaging with the natural environment: The role of affective connection and identity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(2), 109–120. DOI:

Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174–180. DOI:

Hughes, C., White, A., Sharpen, J., & Dunn, J. (2000). Antisocial, angry, and unsympathetic: “hard-to-manage” preschoolers’ peer problems and possible cognitive influences. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41(2), 169–179. DOI:

IBM Corp. (2019). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 26). IBM Corp.

Jacobson, L. A., Williford, A. P., & Pianta, R. C. (2011). The role of executive function in children’s competent adjustment to middle school. Child Neuropsychology, 17(3), 255–280. DOI:

Jenkin, R., Frampton, I., White, M. P., & Pahl, S. (2018). The relationship between exposure to natural and urban environments and children’s self-regulation. Landscape Research, 43(3), 315–328. DOI:

Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(3), 169–182. DOI:

Kibbe, M. M., & Leslie, A. M. (2013). What’s the object of object working memory in infancy? Unraveling ‘what’ and ‘how many’. Cognitive Psychology, 66(4), 380–404. DOI:

Koepp, A. E., Gershoff, E. T., Castelli, D. M., & Bryan, A. E. (2022). Preschoolers’ executive functions following indoor and outdoor free play. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 28, 100182. DOI:

Larson, L. R., Green, G. T., & Castleberry, S. B. (2011). Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Environmental Orientations in a Diverse Group of Children. Environment and Behavior, 43(1), 72–89. DOI:

Latzman. (2009). Interrelations among youth temperament, executive functions, and externalizing behaviors. The University of Iowa.

Sustainable development of the countryside, Publ. L. No 45/2007 (2007)

Lehto, J. E., Juujärvi, P., Kooistra, L., & Pulkkinen, L. (2003). Dimensions of executive functioning: Evidence from children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21(1), 59–80. DOI:

Linnell, K. J., Caparos, S., de Fockert, J. W., & Davidoff, J. (2013). Urbanization decreases attentional engagement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39(5), 1232–1247. DOI:

Lucassen, N., Kok, R., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Hofman, A., Verhulst, F. C., Lambregtse-Van den Berg, M. P., & Tiemeier, H. (2015). Executive functions in early childhood: The role of maternal and paternal parenting practices. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 489–505. DOI:

Madzia, J., Ryan, P., Yolton, K., Percy, Z., Newman, N., LeMasters, G., & Brokamp, C. (2019). Residential greenspace association with childhood behavioral outcomes. The Journal of Pediatrics, 207, 233–240. DOI:

Mårtensson, F., Boldemann, C., Söderström, M., Blennow, M., Englund, J.-E., & Grahn, P. (2009). Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children. Health & Place, 15(4), 1149–1157. DOI:

Miller, M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2010). Does childhood executive function predict adolescent functional outcomes in girls with ADHD?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(3), 315–326. DOI:

Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49–100. DOI:

Montroy, J. J., Merz, E. C., Williams, J. M., Landry, S. H., Johnson, U. Y., Zucker, T. A., Assel, M., Taylor, H. B., Lonigan, C. J., Phillips, B. M., Clancy-Menchetti, J., Barnes, M. A., Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T., Valiente, C., de Villiers, J., & de Villiers, P. (2019). Hot and cool dimensionality of executive function: Model invariance across age and maternal education in preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 49, 188–201. DOI:

Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Wang, Y., Hillemeier, M. M., Oh, Y., & Maczuga, S. (2019). Executive function deficits in kindergarten predict repeated academic difficulties across elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 46, 20–32. DOI:

Müller, U., & Kerns, K. (2015). The development of executive function. In Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Cognitive processes ( Vol. 2, 7th ed., pp. 571–623). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Murray, S., Krasich, K., Schooler, J. W., & Seli, P. (2020). What’s in a task? Complications in the study of the task-unrelated-thought variety of mind wandering. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 15(3), 572–588. DOI:

Okur, Ş. (2020). Predictors of executive function in early childhood: Urban and rural poverty. [Doctoral dissertation]. Middle East Technical University.

Otterman, D. L., Koopman-Verhoeff, M. E., White, T. J., Tiemeier, H., Bolhuis, K., & Jansen, P. W. (2019). Executive functioning and neurodevelopmental disorders in early childhood: A prospective population-based study. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 13, 38. DOI:

Pauli-Pott, U., Albayrak, Ö., Hebebrand, J., & Pott, W. (2010). Association between inhibitory control capacity and body weight in overweight and obese children and adolescents: Dependence on age and inhibitory control component. Child Neuropsychology, 16(6), 592–603. DOI:

Riggs, N. R., Jahromi, L. B., Razza, R. P., Dillworth-Bart, J. E., & Mueller, U. (2006). Executive function and the promotion of social–emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27(4), 300–309. DOI:

Rivero, M., Vilaseca, R., Cantero, M.-J., Navarro-Pardo, E., Ferrer, F., Valls-Vidal, C., & Bersabé, R. M. (2022). Parenting of Spanish mothers and fathers playing with their children at home. Plos One, 17(6), e0266762. DOI:

Rojas-Barahona, C. A., Förster, C. E., Moreno-Ríos, S., & McClelland, M. M. (2015). Improvement of working memory in preschoolers and its impact on early literacy skills: a study in deprived communities of rural and urban areas. Early Education and Development, 26(5–6), 871–892. DOI:

Rosa, C. D., & Collado, S. (2019). Experiences in nature and environmental attitudes and behaviors: setting the ground for future research. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 763. DOI:

Rosiek, M. A., Etnier, J. L., & Willoughby, M. T. (2022). A comparison of the effects of outdoor physical activity and indoor classroom-based activities on measures of executive function in preschoolers. International Journal of Early Childhood, 54(2), 203–215. DOI:

Samuels, W. E., Tournaki, N., Blackman, S., & Zilinski, C. (2016). Executive functioning predicts academic achievement in middle school: A four-year longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 109(5), 478–490. DOI:

Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-Jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(1), 120–132. DOI:

Schoemaker, K., Bunte, T., Wiebe, S. A., Espy, K. A., Deković, M., & Matthys, W. (2012). Executive function deficits in preschool children with ADHD and DBD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(2), 111–119. DOI:

Schutte, A. R., Torquati, J. C., & Beattie, H. L. (2017). Impact of urban nature on executive functioning in early and middle childhood. Environment and Behavior, 49(1), 3–30. DOI:

Sobel, M. E. (1998). Causal inference in statistical models of the process of socioeconomic achievement: A case study. Sociological Methods & Research, 27(2), 318–348. DOI:

Spanish Statistics National Institute. (2016). Total personas (de 18 y más años). Actividades de cuidados y tareas del hogar. Niños que asisten a centros educativos y de cuidados. Hogares con personas dependientes. INE. - if here is english please add. It's only in Spanish, but the name in English would be: " Spanish Statistics National Institute. (2016). Total people (18 years and over). Care activities and household chores. Children attending educational and care centers. Households with dependent people. INE."

Stevens, C., Lauinger, B., & Neville, H. (2009). Differences in the neural mechanisms of selective attention in children from different socioeconomic backgrounds: An event-related brain potential study. Developmental Science, 12(4), 634–646. DOI:

Taylor, A. F., Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2002). Views of nature and self-discipline: evidence from inner city children. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22(1), 49–63. DOI:

Technological Institute of Children’s Products and Leisure. (2019). Guía AIJU 3.0.

Torquati, J., Schutte, A., & Kiat, J. (2017). Attentional demands of executive function tasks in indoor and outdoor settings: behavioral and neuroelectrical evidence. Children, Youth and Environments, 27(2), 70-92. DOI:

Unsworth, N., Fukuda, K., Awh, E., & Vogel, E. K. (2014). Working memory and fluid intelligence: capacity, attention control, and secondary memory retrieval. Cognitive Psychology, 71, 1–26. DOI:

Valcan, D. S., Davis, H., & Pino-Pasternak, D. (2018). Parental behaviours predicting early childhood executive functions: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 30, 607–649. DOI:

Vernon-Feagans, L., Willoughby, M., & Garrett-Peters, P. (2016). Predictors of behavioral regulation in kindergarten: Household chaos, parenting, and early executive functions. Developmental Psychology, 52(3), 430-441. DOI:

Wang, K. Y. R., Su, Y., Xu, X., Richards, B. D., & Rao, N. (2019). Executive function development in urban and rural areas in China. In Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Biennial Meeting. All Academic, Inc.

Weeland, J., Moens, M. A., Beute, F., Assink, M., Staaks, J. P. C., & Overbeek, G. (2019). A dose of nature: Two three-level meta-analyses of the beneficial effects of exposure to nature on children’s self-regulation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 65, 101326. c DOI:

Werner-Seidler, A., Perry, Y., Calear, A. L., Newby, J. M., & Christensen, H. (2017). School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 30–47. DOI:

Williams, E. D. T., & Mann, T. L. (2006). Early childhood education in rural communities: access and quality issues. Frederick D. Patterson Research Institute.

Wilson, J., Hogan, C., Wang, S., Andrews, G., & Shum, D. (2022). Executive function moderates the relationship between temperament and psychological difficulties in middle childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 28(6), 831–852. DOI:

Wright, I., Waterman, M., Prescott, H., & Murdoch-Eaton, D. (2003). A new Stroop-like measure of inhibitory function development: Typical developmental trends. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 44(4), 561–575. DOI:

Young, D. J. (1998). Rural and urban differences in student achievement in science and mathematics: A multilevel analysis. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 9(4), 386-418. DOI:

Zelazo, P. D., Blair, C. B., & Willoughby, M. T. (2016). Executive function: Implications for education. U. S. Department of Education (pp. 1–148).

Zelazo, P. D., & Mller, U. (2002). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development (pp. 445–469). Blackwell Publishers Ltd. DOI:




How to Cite

Sánchez-Pérez, N., Gracia-Esteban, M., Santamaría-Gutiez, R., & López-Crespo , G. (2023). Contact with nature and executive functions: A pilot study with Spanish preschoolers. Journal of Childhood, Education & Society, 4(3), 234–248.

Funding data

Most read articles by the same author(s)