Colombian retrospective study of the association between breastfeeding duration and eating behaviors

Abstract views: 1746 / PDF downloads: 358




Breastfeeding duration, Eating behaviors, Preschoolers, Latino


The current retrospective cross-sectional study included 175 Colombian caregivers of children ranging between 24 and 59 months old (M=47.08, SD=7.08) enrolled in childcare centers located in the Caribbean region. 58% of the children are male, and all of them belong to low-income families. Breastfeeding duration ranged between children’s 0 to 37 months old (M=10.84, SD=8.48); 64 of them had exclusive breastfeeding for during their first 6 months (i.e., no fed with bottle). Results showed that the variance of Food Responsiveness explained by the model was 2% (R2=.02, F(3,161)=1.081, p=.359). Breastfeeding duration did not significantly predict Food Responsiveness (β=-.004, p=.219), as well as age (β=.004, p=.346) and gender (β=.056, p=.354) did not significantly explain the dependent variable. Likewise, Satiety Responsiveness variance was not explained by duration of breastfeeding (β=.002, p=.548), age (β=.003, p=.489), and gender (β=.040, p=.561). Overall, the explained variance was less than 1% (R2=.008, F(3,161)= .428, p=.733). Breastfeeding duration does not significantly change the child’s likelihood of being unhealthy (β=-.010, p=.616), while being male and getting older increase the odds of being healthy. Future directions and limitations are discussed.


Abou-ElWafa, H. S., & El-Gilany, A.-H. (2019). Maternal work and exclusive breastfeeding in Mansoura, Egypt. Family Practice, 36(5), 568–572. DOI:

Behar, A. I., Crespo, N. C., Garcia, M. L., Ayala, G. X., Campbell, N., Shadron, L. M., & Elder, J. P. (2018). Validation of a Shortened Version of the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Associations with BMI in a Clinical Sample of Latino Children. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 50(4), 372-378.e1. DOI:

Benjumea, M., Matijasevic, A., Ramos, S., & González, D. (2011). Lactancia materna exclusiva y parcial en el departamento de Caldas - 2010. Hacia La Promoción de La Salud, 16(1), 39–55. retrieved from

Biks, G. A., Berhane, Y., Worku, A., & Gete, Y. K. (2015). Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 34(9), 7–12. DOI:

Birch, L. L., Fisher, J. O., Grimm-Thomas, K., Markey, C. N., Sawyer, R., & Johnson, S. L. (2001). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: A measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness. Appetite, 36(3), 201–210. DOI:

Borkhoff, C. M., Dai, D. W. H., Jairam, J. A., Wong, P. D., Cox, K. A., Maguire, J. L., Birken, C. S., Macarthur, C., Parkin, P. C., & TARGet Kids! Collaboration. (2018). Breastfeeding to 12 mo and beyond: Nutrition outcomes at 3 to 5 y of age. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108(2), 354–362. DOI:

Brown, A., & Lee, M. D. (2015). Early influences on child satiety-responsiveness: The role of weaning style. Pediatric Obesity, 10(1), 57–66. DOI:

Cabrera, A., Mateus, J. C., & Girón, S. L. (2004). Duración de la lactancia exclusiva en Cali, Colombia, 2003. Colombia Médica, 35(3), 132–138. retrieved from

Caleyachetty, A., Krishnaveni, G. V, Veena, S. R., Hill, J., Karat, S. C., Fall, C. H. D., & Wills, A. K. (2013). Breastfeeding duration, Age of starting solids and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 9(2), 199–216. DOI:

Carling, S. J., Demment, M. M., Kjolhede, C. L., & Olson, C. M. (2014). Breastfeeding duration and weight gain trajectory in infancy. Pediatrics, 135(1), 111–119. DOI:

Carnell, S., & Wardle, J. (2007). Measuring behavioural susceptibility to obesity: Validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Appetite, 48(1), 104–113. DOI:

Croker, H., Cooke, L., & Wardle, J. (2011). Appetitive behaviours of children attending obesity treatment. Appetite, 57(2), 525–529. DOI:

DeCosta, P., Møller, P., Frøst, M. B., & Olsen, A. (2017). Changing children’s eating behaviour - A review of experimental research. Appetite, 113(1), 327–357. DOI:

Denney-Wilson, E., & Campbell, K. J. (2008). Eating behaviour and obesity. BMJ, 337(a2002), 1064–1065. DOI:

Derks, I. P. M., Sijbrands, E. J. G., Wake, M., Qureshi, F., van der Ende, J., Hillegers, M. H. J., Jaddoe, V. W. V, Tiemeier, H., & Jansen, P. W. (2018). Eating behavior and body composition across childhood: a prospective cohort study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15(1), 1–9. DOI:

DiSantis, K. I., Collins, B. N., Fisher, J. O., & Davey, A. (2011). Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(89). DOI:

Escalante Barrios, E.L. (2016). Feeding practices of families with preschoolers in colombia and USA: A cross-cultural multiple case study (Publication No. 10143737) [Doctoral dissertation, University od Nebraska Lincoln]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing

Falcão, V. de A. P., Midlej, M. C., Falcão, E., & Macedo, D. M. (1991). El crecimiento de los ninos alimentados exclusivamente con leche materna durante los seis primeros meses de vida. In Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana (OSP) (Vol. 110, Issue 4). retrieved from

Fiese, B. H., Musaad, S., Bost, K. K., McBride, B. A., Lee, S.-Y., Teran-Garcia, M., & Donovan, S. M. (2019). The STRONG Kids 2 Birth Cohort Study: A Cell-to-Society Approach to Dietary Habits and Weight Trajectories across the First 5 Years of Life. Current Developments in Nutrition, 3(3), 1–10. DOI:

French, S. A., Epstein, L. H., Jeffery, R. W., Blundell, J. E., & Wardle, J. (2012). Eating behavior dimensions. Associations with energy intake and body weight. A review. Appetite, 59(2), 541–549. DOI:

Gibson, L. A., Alava, M. H., Kelly, M. P., & Campbell, M. J. (2017). The effects of breastfeeding on childhood BMI: A propensity score matching approach. Journal of Public Health, 39(4), e152–e160. DOI:

Gómez-Aristizábal, L. Y., Díaz-Ruiz, C. E., & Manrique-Hernández, R. D. (2013). Factores asociados con lactancia materna exclusiva hasta el sexto mes en madres adolescentes. Medellin, 2010. Revista de Salud Pública, 15(3), 374–385. DOI:

Gregory, J. E., Paxton, S. J., & Brozovic, A. M. (2010). Maternal feeding practices , child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(55), 1–10. DOI:

Harder, T., Bergmann, R., Kallischnigg, G., & Plagemann, A. (2005). Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(5), 397–403. DOI:

Hathcock, A., Krause, K., Viera, A. J., Fuemmeler, B. F., Lovelady, C., & Østbye, T. (2014). Satiety Responsiveness and the Relationship Between Breastfeeding and Weight Status of Toddlers of Overweight and Obese Women. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(1023), 1023–1030. DOI:

Ip, S., Chung, M., Raman, G., Chew, P., Magula, N., Devine, D., Trikalinos, T., & Lau, J. (2007). Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes in Developed Countries. In Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Publication (Vol. 07, Issue E007). retrieved from

Jansen, A., Theunissen, N., Slechten, K., Nederkoorn, C., Boon, B., Mulkens, S., & Roefs, A. (2003). Overweight children overeat after exposure to food cues. Eating Behaviors, 4(2), 197–209. DOI:

Jansen, P. W., Roza, S. J., Jaddoe, V. W. V, Mackenbach, J. D., Raat, H., Hofman, A., Verhulst, F. C., & Tiemeier, H. (2012). Children’s eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 1–11. DOI:

Kumar, V., Arora, G., Kumar, I., & Pal, Y. (2015). Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice. International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS, 3(1), 7–15. DOI:

Li, R., Fein, S. B., & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2010). Do Infants Fed From Bottles Lack Self-regulation of Milk Intake Compared With Directly Breastfed Infants? Pediatrics, 125(6), e1386–e1393. DOI:

Li, R., Scanlon, K. S., May, A., Rose, C., & Birch, L. (2014). Bottle-Feeding Practices During Early Infancy and Eating Behaviors at 6 Years of Age. Pediatrics, 134(Supplement 1), S70–S77. DOI:

Llewellyn, C. H., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Boniface, D., Carnell, S., & Wardle, J. (2008). Eating rate is a heritable phenotype related to weight in children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(6), 1560–1566. DOI:

Llewellyn, C. H., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Johnson, L., Carnell, S., & Wardle, J. (2011). Development and factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in the Gemini birth cohort. Appetite, 57(2), 388–396. DOI:

Mallan, K. M., Daniels, L. A., & de Jersey, S. J. (2014). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and associations with infant weight, gender and feeding mode in an Australian sample. Appetite, 82(1), 43–49. DOI:

Mallan, K. M., Nambiar, S., Magarey, A. M., & Daniels, L. A. (2014). Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age. Appetite, 74(1), 79–85. DOI:

Mateus, J. C. (2012). Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal. Colombia Médica, 43(3), 206–211. retrieved from

McCarthy, E. K., Chaoimh, C., Murray, D. M., Hourihane, J. O. B., Kenny, L. C., & Kiely, M. (2015). Eating behaviour and weight status at 2 years of age : data from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(June), 1356–1359. DOI:

Miani, C., Breckenkamp, J., Grosser, A., Höller-Holtrichter, C., Ergin, E., Hoffmann, R., Doyle, I., Spallek, J., & Razum, O. (2018). Socio-economic determinants of breastfeeding uptake and duration intention among women with and without migration background. Results from the BaBi birth cohort study in Bielefeld, Germany. European Journal of Public Health, 28(1), 2018. DOI:

Muchacha, M., & Mtetwa, E. (2014). Social and Economic Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding in Rural Zimbabwe. International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS, 3(1), 16–21. DOI:

Niño, L. (2014). Caracterización de la lactancia materna y factores asociados en Puerto Carreño, Colombia. Revista de Salud Pública, 16(4), 560–571. DOI:

Obregón, A. M., Pettinelli, P. P., & Santos, J. L. (2014). Childhood obesity and eating behaviour. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 28(5–6), 497–502. DOI:

Reyes, M., Hoyos, V., Martinez, S. M., Lozoff, B., Castillo, M., Burrows, R., Blanco, E., & Gahagan, S. (2014). Satiety responsiveness and eating behavior among Chilean adolescents and the role of breastfeeding. International Journal of Obesity, 38(4), 552–557. DOI:

Rodríguez-García, J., & Acosta-Ramírez, N. (2008). Factores asociados a la lactancia materna exclusiva en población pobre de áreas urbanas de Colombia. Revista de Salud Pública, 10(1), 71–84. DOI:

Rodríguez, M. M., Naveiro Rilo, J. C., Fernández, E. B., Arias, I. C., Ferández, M. R., & Casado, A. P. (2009). Prevalencia y duración de la lactancia materna. Influencia sobre el peso y la morbilidad. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 24(2), 213–217.

Rogers, S. L., & Blissett, J. (2016). Breastfeeding duration and its relation to weight gain, eating behaviours and positive maternal feeding practices in infancy. Appetite, 108(1), 399–406. DOI:

Santos, J. L., Ho-Urriola, J. A., González, A., Smalley, S. V, Domínguez-Vásquez, P., Cataldo, R., Obregán, A. M., Amador, P., Weisstaub, G., & Hodgson, M. I. (2011). Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children. Nutrition Journal, 10(1), 1–8. DOI:

Savino, F., Fissore, M. F., Liguori, S. A., & Oggero, R. (2009). Can hormones contained in mothers’ milk account for the beneficial effect of breast-feeding on obesity in children? Clinical Endocrinology, 71(6), 757–765. DOI:

Sinopolou, V., Harrold, J., & Halford, J. (2015). La evaluación y el significado de la saciedad en la infancia. In The ECOG’s eBook on Child and Adolescent Obesity. retrieved from

Sparks, M. A., & Radnitz, C. L. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income sample. Eating Behaviors, 13(3), 267–270. DOI:

Spence, J. C., Carson, V., Casey, L., & Boule, N. (2011). Examining behavioural susceptibility to obesity among Canadian pre-school children: The role of eating behaviours. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 6(sup3), 501–507. DOI:

Vogelezang, S., Santos, S., van der Beek, E. M., Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M., Duijts, L., van der Lugt, A., Felix, J. F., & Jaddoe, V. W. V. (2018). Infant breastfeeding and childhood general, visceral, liver, and pericardial fat measures assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108(4), 722–729. DOI:

Wardle, J., Guthrie, C. A., Sanderson, S., & Rapoport, L. (2001). Development of the children’s eating behaviour questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42(7), 963–970. DOI:

Webber, L., Hill, C., Saxto, J., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., & Wardle, J. (2009). Eating Behaviour and Weight in Children. Kanisius, 33(1), 1–180.

World Health Organization. (2011). WHO Anthro for Personal Computers Manual, version 3.2.2, 2011: Software for assessing growth and development of the world’s children. retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2012). WHA Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Breastfeeding Policy Brief. retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2013). Long-term health effects of breastfeeding. In World Health Organization Library Cataloguing in Publication Data (Vol. 129, Issues 8–9). retrieved from

Yan, J., Liu, L., Zhu, Y., Huang, G., & Wang, P. P. (2014). The association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 14(1267), 1–11. DOI:




How to Cite

Rincón, C. ., Escalante Barrios, E. L. ., Suarez Enciso, S. ., Estrada , J. ., Anturi Linero, M., & Herdénez, A. (2020). Colombian retrospective study of the association between breastfeeding duration and eating behaviors . Journal of Childhood, Education & Society, 1(1), 78–86.