‘What are the goals of kindergarten?’ Consistency of teachers’ and parents’ beliefs about kindergarten goals

Abstract views: 1621 / PDF downloads: 664





Teachers’ and parents’ beliefs, Early childhood education, Kindergarten goals, Curriculum, COVID-19


The teachers’ perceptions of the curriculum or their beliefs about how children learn can influence the quality of the teaching activity and its final outcome. Furthermore, the importance of an extended cooperation and mutual understanding between the actors involved (kindergarten teachers – parents) seems to be a crucial issue in order to establish a supportive framework. The research is structured in two dimensions. We seek the beliefs of kindergarten teachers (K-teachers) and parents, as well as their mutual perceptions of each other’s beliefs, i.e., K-teachers for parents and parents for K-teachers, about the importance of kindergarten goals. The study was conducted in Greece, specifically in the region of Central Macedonia, in June 2021, after the re-opening of schools due to the Covid-19 pandemic. A sample of 330 K-teachers and 419 parents from public and private schools responded to closed-ended questionnaires, rating –on a 5-point Likert scale- the importance of 14 Kindergarten goals. We found that K-teachers generally underestimated parents’ beliefs about kindergarten goals relative to their own beliefs and overestimated parents’ beliefs about the ‘academic’ curriculum goals; a trend that was not confirmed by the parallel survey of parents’ beliefs. In contrast, parents appeared to express a more balanced perception between their own beliefs and those they perceived K-teachers to hold. We also found evidence of differentiation between private and public schools. According to the findings, a harmonized perception of kindergarten goals by K-teachers and parents in private versus public schools is apparent.


Abry, T., Latham, S., Bassok, D., & LoCasale-Crouch, J. (2015). Preschool and kindergarten teachers’ beliefs about early school competencies: Misalignment matters for kindergarten adjustment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 31, 78–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.01.001

Alexander, K.L., Entiwisle, D.R., & Bedinger, S.D. (1994). When expectations work: race and socioeconomic differences in school performance. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(4), 283-299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2787156

Alexiadou, N., & Altmann, S. (2020). Early childhood education research in Europe: contexts, policies, and ideas. Education Inquiry, 11(2), 89–93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2020.1736795

Bæck, U.D.K. (2010). 'We are the professionals': a study of teachers' views on parental involvement in school. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 31(3), 323-335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01425691003700565

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.

Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 61(3), 1206–1222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01791.x

Bao, X., Qu, H., Zhang, R., & Hogan, T. (2020). Modeling reading ability gain in kindergarten children during Covid-19 school closures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17), 6371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176371

Barkatsas, A., & Malone, J. (2005). A typology of mathematics teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics and instructional practices. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 17(2), 69–90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03217416

Bassok, D., Latham, S., & Rorem, A. (2016). Is kindergarten the new first grade? AERA Open, 2(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858415616358

Bautista, A., Ng, S.C., Munez, D., & Bull, R. (2016). Learning areas for holistic education: Kindergarten teachers’ curriculum priorities, professional development needs, and beliefs. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 10(1), 1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40723-016-0024-4

Birbili, M. (2017). The pedagogy of worksheets in early childhood settings: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. In A. Pinto & V. Pagnotto (Eds.), Focus on early childhood education (pp. 85–122). Nova Science Publicers.

Birbili, M., & Myrovali, A. (2020). Early childhood teachers’ relationship with the official curriculum: the mediating role of professional and policy contexts. Education Inquiry, 11(2), 110–125. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2019.1687080

Birbili, M., & Tsitouridou, M., (2019). Early childhood teacher education in Greece: Challenges and opportunities in centralised education system. In S. Garvis & S.Phillipson (Eds.), Policification of Early Childhood Education and Care: Early Childhood Education in the 21st Century Vol III (pp. 101-116). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203730539-9

Braslauskiene, R., Smitiene, G., & Vsimantiene, R. (2017, May 26-27). Primary school teachers’ approach to advantages of ICT use in education. Society. Integration. Education. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 3, 439–450. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2017vol3.2241

Brousseau, B.A., Book, C., & Byers, J. (1988). Teacher beliefs and the cultures of teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 39(6), 33–39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002248718803900607

Carbonaro, W. (2006). Public-private differences in achievement among kindergarten students: Differences in learning opportunities and student outcomes. American Journal of Education, 113(1), 31–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/506493

Cheung, D. (2000). Measuring teachers’ meta-orientations to curriculum: Application of hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 68(2), 149–165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220970009598500

Cheung, D., & Ng, P.H. (2000). Science teachers’ beliefs about curriculum design. Research in Science Education, 30(4), 357–375. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02461556

Cheung, D., & Wong, H. (2002). Measuring teacher beliefs about alternative curriculum design. The Curriculum Journal, 13(2), 225–248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585170210136868

Conger, R.D., Conger, K.J., & Martin, M.J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 685-704. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00725.x

Cooper, H., Allen, A.B., Patall, E.A., & Dent, A.L. (2010). Effects of full-day kindergarten on academic achievement and social development. Review of Educational Research, 80(1), 34–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654309359185

Council of the European Union (2010). Council Conclusions of 11 May 2010 on the social dimension of education and training (2010/C 135/02). Official Journal of the European Union.

Council of the European Union (2019). Council recommendation of 22 May 2019 on high quality early childhood education and care systems (2019/C 189/02). Official Journal of the European Union.

Di Santo, A. Timmons, K., & Lenis, A. (2017). Preservice early childhood educators' pedagogical beliefs. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 38(3), 223–241. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2017.1347588

Dimitropoulos, A., & Kindi, V. (2017). Accountability in Greek education: Country Case Study Prepared for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report, Accountability in Education: Meeting our Commitments. UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002595/259533e.pdf

Doliopoulou, E. (2006). System of early education/care and professionalisation in Greece. Report commissioned by the State Institute of Early Childhood Research (IFP) Munich, Germany.

Doliopoulou, E., & Kontogianni, A., (2003). The interaction kindergarten teachers and parents in Greece. Exploring the child's world, 5, 88-108.

Doliopoulou, E., & Sousloglou, Κ. (2007). Kindergarten teachers' views on the implementation of DEPPS for kindergarten. Exploring the child's world, 7, 123–149.

Dong, C., Cao, S., & Li, H. (2020). Young children's online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: Chinese parents' beliefs and attitudes. Children and Youth Services Review, 118, 105440. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105440

Ennis, C.D. (1992). The influence of value orientations in curriculum decisions making. Quest, 44(3), 317–329. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1992.10484058

Epstein, J. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools. Westview Press.

Epstein, J.L. (1986). Parents' reactions to teacher practices of parent involvement. The elementary school journal, 86(3), 277-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/461449

European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice/Eurostat. (2014). Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe. 2014 Edition. Eurydice and Eurostat Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/5785249/EC-01-14-484-EN.PDF.pdf/cbdf1804-a139-43a9-b8f1-ca5223eea2a1?t=1414777768000

Fantuzzo, J., Perry, M.A., & Childs, S. (2006). Parent satisfaction with educational experiences scale: A multivariate examination of parent satisfaction with early childhood education programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(2), 142–152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.04.002

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Ed.). Sage.

Firmanto, A., Sumarsono, P., & Nur, F. (2020). A family-school partnership based learning: An effort to organize early childhood education during pandemic. In International Conference on Community Development (ICCD 2020) (pp. 100-103). Atlantis Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.201017.023

Fives, H., & Buehl, M.M. (2012). Spring cleaning for the messy construct of teachers’ beliefs: What are they? Which have been examined? What can they tells us? In K.R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook: Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (pp. 471–499). APA. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/13274-019

Florio-Ruane, S., & Lensmire, T.J. (1990). Transforming future teachers’ ideas about writing instruction. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 22(3), 277–289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0022027900220305

Foti, P. (2020). Research in distance learning in Greek kindergarten schools during the pandemic of Covid-19: possibilities, dilemmas, limitations. European Journal of Open Education and E-Learning Studies, 5(1), 19-40.

Fotopoulou, V.S., & Ifanti, A.A. (2017). In-service teachers' perceptions on specific aspects of professionalism in Greece. Educational Journal of the University of Patras Unesco Chair, 4(1), 17-33.

Friedman, B.A., Bobrowski, P.E., & Gerace, J. (2006). Parents’ school satisfaction: Ethnic similarities and differences. Journal of Educational Administration, 44(5), 471–486. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230610683769

Fung, K.H., & Lam, C.C., (2012). The tension between parents' informed choice and school transparency: consumerism in the Hong Kong education voucher scheme. International Journal of Early Childhood, 44(1), 31-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-011-0051-9

Gallant, P.A. (2009). Kindergarten teachers speak out: “Too much, too soon, too fast!” Reading Horizons, 49(3), 201–220.

Garbe, A., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). COVID-19 and remote learning: Experiences of parents with children during the pandemic. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(3), 45–65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/8471

Goldring, E.B., & Hausman, C.S. (1999). Reasons for parental choice of urban schools. Journal of Education Policy, 14(5), 469–490. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/026809399286161

Goldring, E.B., & Phillips, K.R. (2008). Parent preferences and parent choices: the public-private decision about school choice. Journal of Education Policy, 23(3), 209–230. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930801987844

Gooya, Z. (2007). Mathematics teachers’ beliefs about a new reform in high school geometry in Iran. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 65, 331–347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-006-9055-z

Government gazette (2003). Cross-thematic integrated framework for the preschool curriculum (DEPPS). Athens.

Grace, D.J., & Brandt, M.E. (2006). Ready for success in kindergarten: A comparative analysis of teacher, parent, and administrator beliefs in Hawaii. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 4(3), 223–258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718X06067578

Guan, H., Okely, A.D., Aguilar-Farias, N., del Pozo Cruz, B., Draper, C.E., El Hamdouchi, A.E., Florindo, A.A., Jauregui, A., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Kontsevaya, A., Lof, M., Park, W., Reilly, J.J., Sharma, M.S., & Veldman, S.L.C. (2020). Promoting healthy movement behaviours among children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 4(6), 416–418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30131-0

Gullo, D.F. (2006). The long term educational effects of half-day vs full-day kindergarten. Early Child Development and Care, 160(1), 17–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0030443001600102

Hamre, B.K., & Pianta, R.C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eight grade. Child Development, 72(12), 147–159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00301

Hatcher, B., Nuner, J., & Paulsel, J. (2012). Kindergarten readiness and preschools: Teachers’ and parents’ beliefs within and across programs. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 14(2), 1-17.

Hausman, C., & Goldring, E. (2000). Parent involvement, influence, and satisfaction in magnet schools: Do reasons for choice matter? The Urban Review, 32, 105–121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005121214860

Heaviside, S., & Farris, E. (1993). Public school kindergarten teachers’ views on children’s readiness for school (NCES 93-410). National Center for Education Statistics.

Hollingsworth, H.L., & Winter, M.K. (2013). Teacher beliefs and practices relating to development in preschool: Importance placed on social-emotional behaviours and skills. Early Child Development and Care, 183(12), 1758–1781. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2012.759567

Ifanti, A.A. (1995). Policy making, politics and administration in education in Greece. Educational Management and Administration, 23(4), 271-278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0263211X9502300407

Jawale, V.K. (2012). Methods of sampling design in the legal research: Advantages and disadvantages. Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 2(6), 183–190.

Jimoyiannis, A., & Komis, V. (2007). Examining teachers’ beliefs about ICT in education: Implications of a teacher preparation programme. Teacher Developoment, 11(2), 149–173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530701414779

Kagan, D. M. (1995). Research on teacher cognition. In A.C. Ornstein (Ed.), Teaching: Theory into Practice (pp. 226–238). Ally and Bacon.

Kamerman, S.B. (2006). A global history of early childhood education and care. UNESCO.

Kaplan, A., & Maehr, M.L. (2007). The contributions and prospects of Goal Orientation Theory. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 141–184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9012-5

Karadimitriou, S.M., Marshall, E., & Knox, C. (2018). Mann-Whitney U Test. Sheffield Hallam University.

Kim, J., Murdock, T., & Choi, D. (2005). Investigation of parents’ beliefs about readiness for kindergarten: An examination of National Household Education Survey. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(2), 3–17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X034008003

La Paro, K.M., Siepak, K., & Scott-Little, C. (2009). Assessing beliefs of preservice early childhood education teachers using q-sort methodology. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 30(1), 22–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10901020802667805

Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods. Class, race, and family life. University of California Press.

Lau, E.Y.H., & Lee, K. (2020). Parents’ views on young children’s distance learning and screen time during COVID-19 class suspension in Hong Kong. Early Education and Development, 32(6), 863–880. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2020.1843925

Lau, M.M., & Li, H. (2018). Is whole-day kindergarten better than half-day kindergarten? A mixed methods study of Chinese educators’ perceptions. Children and Youth Services Review, 93, 365–377. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.07.007

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355

Law 3518 'Restructuring of the branches of the Pension Fund of Engineers and Public Works Contractors and regulation of other issues under the responsibility of the Ministry of Employment and Social Protection', 272 § A (2006).

Law 3966 'Institutional framework of model experimental schools, establishment of the Institute of Educational Policy, organization of the Institute of Computer Technology and Publications ''DIOPHANTOS'' and other provisions', 118 § Α (2011).

Law 4521 'Establishment of the University of West Attica and other provisions', 38 § A (2018).

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2003). The essential conversation: What parents and teachers can learn about each other. Random House.

Lee, J.S., Ward, P.K., Chang, D.O., & Downing, M.K. (2021). Parenting activities and the transition to home-based education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and Youth Services Review, 122, 105585. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105585

Merry, M.S. (2005). Cultural coherence and the schooling for identity maintenance. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 39(3), 477-497. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2005.00449.x

Miller, E. & Almon, J. (2009). Crisis in the Kindergarten: Why children need to play in school. Alliance for Childhood (NJ3a).

Moseley, C., Reinke, K., & Bookout, V. (2002). The effect of teaching outdoor environmental education on preservice teachers’ attitudes toward self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Journal of Environmental Education, 34(1), 9–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960209603476

Munastiwi, E., & Puryono, S. (2021). Unprepared management decreases education performance in kindergartens during Covid-19 pandemic. Heliyon, 7(5), E07138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07138

Naresh, R. (2020). Education after COVID-19 crisis based on ICT tools. Purakala, 31(37), 464–468.

Neumann, M.M. (2014). An examination of touch screen tablets and emergent literacy in Australian pre-school children. Australian Journal of Education, 58(2), 109–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0004944114523368

Nsiah-Peprah, Y. (2004). Assessment of the role of private schools in the development of education in Ghana: A study of the Kumasi Metropolis. Journal of Science and Technology, 24(2), 54–76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/just.v24i2.32917

Oluwatayo, J. (2012). Validity and reliability issues in educational research. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(2), 391–400.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2015). Starting strong IV. Monitoring quality in early childhood education and care. OECD Publishing.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017). Education policy in Greece. A preliminary assessment. OECD Publishing.

Ostertagová, E., Ostertag, O., & Kovác, J. (2014). Methodology and application of the Kruskal-Wallis test. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 611, 115-120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.611.115

Pajares, M.F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of educational research, 62(3), 307-332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543062003307

Pavlenko, G.V., & Pavlenko, A.I. (2020). Digital literacy as a condition for positive experience of the covid-19 lockdown for families with preschool children. In Research Technologies of Pandemic Coronavirus Impact (RTCOV 2020) (pp. 507–512). Atlantis Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.201105.090

Pelegrum, W.J., & Law, N. (2003). ICT in education around the world: Trends, problems and prospects. UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning.

Petrogiannis, K. (2010). Early childhood care and education in Greece: Some facts on research and policy. International Journal of Early Childhood, 42(2), 131–139. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-010-0016-4

Saiti, A., & Eliophotou-Menon, M. (2009). Educational decision making in a centralised system: the case of Greece. International Journal of Educational Management, 23(6), 446-455. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540910980998

Sakellariou, M., & Rentzou, K. (2007). Types of parental involvement in Greek Preschool settings: A case study. The International Journal of Learning, 14(1), 33-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18848/1447-9494/CGP/v14i01/45170

Sofou, E. (2010). Recent trends in early childhood curriculum: The case of Greek and English national curricula. In D. Mattheou (Ed.), Changing educational landscapes (pp. 227–240). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8534-4_13

Sofou, E., & Tsafos, V. (2010). Preschool teachers' understandings of the national preschool curriculum in Greece. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(5), 411–420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-009-0368-2

Stamelos, G., & Emvaliotis, A. (2001). Detecting the profile of the Departments of Primary School Education. Scientific Annals Department of Primary Education University of Ioannina, 14, 281-292.

Stellakis, N. (2018). Access to and quality of early childhood education and care in Greece. Journal of Early Childhood Studies, 2(1), 151–171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24130/eccd-jecs.196720182154

Stylianidou, F., Bagakis, G., & Stamovlasis, D. (2004). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: OECD activity: Country background report for Greece. Education Research Centre.

Sverdlov, A., & Aram, D. (2016). What are the goals of Kindergarten? Teachers’ beliefs and their perceptions of the beliefs of parents and of agents of the education system. Early Education and Development, 27(3), 352–371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2015.1060150

Tang, E., Wing-Yi Cheng, R., & Fung, W.K. (2021). Perceived parental stress in face of kindergarten children’s academic setback: roles of parents’ goals and education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 36(2), 439–451. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-020-00477-2

Techataweewan, W., & Prasertsin, U. (2018). Development of digital literacy indicators for Thai undergaduate students using mixed method research. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(2), 215–221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjss.2017.07.001

Thompson, A.G. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In D.A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 127–146). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Tooley, J. (2005). Private schools for the poor. Education Next: A Journal of Opinion and Research, 5(4), 22–32.

Tsirmpa, C., Stellakis, N., & Lavidas, K. (2021). Beliefs of parents of preschool children about literacy: Facilitative and conventional approaches. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 29(4), 519-532. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2021.1941169

United Nations Children’s Fund. (2022). Are children really learning? Exploring foundational skills in the midst of a learning crisis. UNICEF.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2019). Countdown to 2030: Country profiles on early childhood development. UNICEF.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932

Whitehurst, G.J., & Lonigan, C.J. (1998). Child Development and Emergent Literacy. Child Development, 69(3), 848–872. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06247.x

World Organisation for Early Childhood Education (2020). OMEP position paper: Early childhood education and care in the time of COVID-19. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52, 119–128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00273-5

Xu, Z., & Gulosino, C.A. (2006). How does teacher quality matter? The effect of teacher-parent partnership on early childhood performance in public and private schools. Education Economics, 14(3), 345-367. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09645290600777550




How to Cite

Oudatzis, N., Tzikas, K., & Poulos, C. (2023). ‘What are the goals of kindergarten?’ Consistency of teachers’ and parents’ beliefs about kindergarten goals. Journal of Childhood, Education & Society, 4(1), 95–113. https://doi.org/10.37291/2717638X.202341231